Friday, December 6, 2019
Political economy free essay sample
Nigeria has been a function of the perceptions of the founding fathers from the eve of independence, and a product of certain geographical factors. The nationalists including Nnamdi Azikiwe, Herbert Macaulay, Obafemi Awolowo, Anthony Enahoro, Aminu Kano, Ahmadu Bello, and Tafawa Balewa, to mention a few, viewed Nigeria as a nation naturally created to fill the roles of leadership in Africa and the world.Ã¢â¬Å"What we now know as Nigeria started to evolve in 1861 following the annexation of Lagos as a crown colony and as a result of the gradual incorporation of a contiguous area and people into the British EmpireÃ¢â¬ .(Remi Anifowose Solomon O.Akinbode,Element of politics: Sam Iroanusi publications) Nigeria is a federal state which constitute 36 state . The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. We will write a custom essay sample on Political economy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. The Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba are the most influential ethic group in the nation. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, the seventh most populous country in the world, and the most populous country in the world in which the majority of the population is black. Nigeria is roughly split half and half between Muslims in the North and Christians in the South; a very small minority practice traditional religion. Borno State is described as Ã¢â¬Å"The Home of PeaceÃ¢â¬ and truly it used to be that is why people of different tribes and religions from within the country and even beyond find the State as a haven where they go about their businessesÃ without any qualms, before the emergence of Boko Haram. The Brono people have been living in the Chad Basin area before the Empires of Kanem and Borno were founded. The basin which stretches from the Tibesti Mountain in the North the Mandara Mountains in the South, from the ancient town of Air in the west to the Ennedi in the east has an area of open water which had once covered its present size for over 4000 years. According to the oral traditions, the Teda (Tibesti), Kanuri and Kanembu who lived around the lake and rivers were called Sao. Legend described them not only as giants and famous hunters but as people who have founded towns. Archeological evidences show that the early societies around the lake were farmers, hunters and fishermen and occurrence of cattle and sheep bones at settlement sites indicate that animal husbandry was another economic activity. The presence of huge clay vessels in and around Borno towns of Ngala and Ndufu prove great skills in ceramic technology of the settlers. Some historical artifacts in Borno and outside also reveal the great wealth of their culture. Since 2002, there has been a spate of clashes, particularly in the North of the country, between government forces and the Islamists militant jihadists: Boko Haram, who claims to seek the establishment of sharia law and to Islamize the country as a whole; in the attempt of doing that, have claimed thousands of lives across the northern part of the country, which has no doubt branded country in the sphere terrorism. The word terrorism was first used in France to describe a new system of government adopted during the French Revolution (1789-1799). From that time on, terrorism has had a decidedly negative connotation. The word, however, did not gain wider popularity until September 11, 2001, when Osama Bin Laden masterminded a terrorist attack on United State. Terrorism is the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear for bringing about political change. All terrorist acts involve violence or equally important the threat of violence. These violent acts are committed by non-states armed actors. Terrorists attempt not only to sow panic but also to undermine confidence in the government and political leadership of their target country. Terrorism is therefore designed to have psychological effects that reach far beyond its impact on the immediate victims or object of an attack. According to Linus Ifeanyi Nnekwe, Terrorism is by nature political because it involves the acquisition and use of power for the purpose of forcing others to submit, or agree, toÃ terrorist demands. A terrorist attack, by generating publicity and focusing attention on the organization behind the attack, is designed to crea te this power. It also fosters an environment of fear and intimidation that the terrorists can manipulate Terrorism has always been the headline of many newspapers for some time now. As the Islamism sect: book haram has claimed responsibility to most of the deadly attacks in the northern region of the country, For Nigerian what appears to be an act of terrorism can be traced to the October 1st bomb blast at the eagle square in Abuja. Today it has taken a new dimension. Nigeria as a nation is now at the mercy of a terrorist religious group known as Boko Haram. Just as if planned in rapid succession between October 2010 till now, we have had more than 70 explosions at different times to tell us that the issue of terrorism is very well alive with us. The use of terrorism for political reason is a serious threat to international peace and security while addressing the UN General Secretary on Wednesday 21st September 2011, president Goodluck Jonathan said that there has been an upsurge to terrorist attacks in some parts of Nigeria over the past few months. According to the president Goodluck, the Ã¢â¬Å"the increasing use of terrorism in various religions of the world as a form of political action posses serious threat the international peace and security. We must win the war against terrorism because its infringes on the fundamental rights of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life and to live in safetyÃ¢â¬ . Boko Haram has claimed responsibility for a lot bombing explosion in the various locations accross the country. These include bombing in December 2011 in jos, Platue State. Other noticeable bomb includes the 1st October 2010 at the federal Capital territory, Abuja Eagle square. The severals of bomb explosions in Maiduguri, Borno state. The audacious bombing of the force headquarters of the Nigerian police force represents a change in usual modus operandi of the groups who resort to this terror tactics in achieving their aims in Nigeria. This is because this was the first known incident in Nigeria that a suicide bomber has reportedly been used. Since then, the country has recorded over three suicide bombing. The latest attack by the group known as boko haram (western education is forbidden) represents a sea change in the tactics and stragegy by this group for main reasons. With the latest attack, boko haram has entered a new phase in its metamorphosis. ItÃ is now a full-blown terrorist organization. But the bitter truth is that boko haram has now fully transformed to a terrorist organization which means anyhow anywhere can be the target. There is no boundary any more. If it happen in Maiduguri, happens in Abuja, Kano, Kaduna, Zaria, Niger, lokoja, etc it can happen in Lagos, port Harcourt, Enugu etc., who knows what could be their next plans. The group is notorious in the way it has varied its modus operandi of attacking vulnerable and defenseless targets including strategic government locations, commercial interest such as bank, customs post, drinking bar, churches, higher institutions, national youth service corps, leading so unfortunate and untimely deaths and injuries of innocent Nigeria, youth of brighter future who could have bring change and foster the development of Nigeria economy. The havoc that the activities of boko haram menace have caused can be best be describe as a disaster. As the repercution cut across, but not limited to social Ã¢â¬â economic life, political life, cultural, education, psychological and development stage of her immediate communities, the killed generation that could possibly bring changes for the country, the larger society and the nation at large. 1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The impact of the activities of bokoharam in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. Their activities has paralyzed almost all sectors of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Terrorism has impeded peace and progressive development in Nigeria. It hinders political development, it affects rapid economic growth and it distorts socio-cultural, equilibrium and lead to environmental deterioration. Many scholars have discussed its consequences according to their observation and background but for us to achieve comprehensive evaluation, we shall take briefly on the aspect mentioned as thus; political, economic, social and environmental consequences. Viewing it from the Political view, it is of a basic importance that we understand the fact that, what makes a nation state is the ability of a collection of people and nation together within a geo-political environment as a nation. But with conflict, good and acceptable government is not guaranteed as even elections into the government reflect the divisions. As it affects the voting pattern so it affects appointment, government policiesÃ within the countries (as we have now) misdirect these political bodies, divides them and hinders their performance. In terms of the economic impact, Literature on conflict has more patronage of discussion on economic consequenses (oluyole 1958, Lauer 1978, Ikpeze, 1997) Conflict and war also leads to dislocation of people from their base. This leads to disruption of economic activitites. In nigeria now the fear of boko haram is everywhere (and according to the slogan among the youth in the north, particularly in kano. Ã¢â¬Å"the fear of boko haram is the beginning of wisdomÃ¢â¬ ). To crown it all financial activities has been paralised as everyone live in fear. People are now scared of gathering together. Business activities has also not been left in this game of fear as everyone is standing with one leg, calculation where is the next target, as every sound like Ã¢â¬Å"GbooaaaÃ¢â¬ seems to be a bomb explosion. It as also contributed to a reduction in government revenue and as also cause a reduction in development in that region, now its been very difficult for state government pay the salaries of civil servant as a result of a drastic reduction in government revenue, basically the problem s of the boko haram as posed a big threat to economic growth as it as also contributed to a reduction GDP and other economic activities. The social aspect cannot be left out here. Social development has been described as the process by which the wellbeing of any society and it people is ensured through collective action visa-a vis the changes taking place in policies, economic and social life of the people (Akukwe 1978, Uzoegbunam 199,Okafor 1997). The typical social development programmes jeopardized by the activities of boko haram in the country includes the following family welfare service, health, housing, community development, youths service and women development, education. Just like it is of the political and economic situation, internal conflict and in fact conflict as a thing negatively hinders social development. Enumeration the consequences of activities of boko haram on the earlier itemize structure we have Education: the education has western education which is more of formal training programmes acquired at pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary levels in Nigeria. The major target of the boko haram is to frustrate the western education which to themÃ is a sin, higher institutions has become a dreadful area the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s main target is western education. Here in the university of Ibadan, so many people has been traumatically been molested all in the name of searching. People, cars have to que up at the gate for searching, the academic activities has been jeopardized. Lecturer lives in fear. Agriculture and food supply this is affected in many ways. Firstly, the land which is very essential for agricultural production has become battlefield or occupied by this group. Almost all parts of borno state and other parts of the northern Nigeria which formed the major food supply to the country have been fled by the people. Hunger and squalor therefore is imminent in Nigeria. Security one of the Ã¢â¬Å"basic needsÃ¢â¬ of man according to Igbo (1997) is security-freedom form poverty, want, diseases, hunger and danger and terrorism brings all these, most serious of them being security from danger. The attack and bomb explosion causes not only death of the soldiers but also of innocent civilians. Life is full of insecurity and uncertainly under terror. Fear has become part of the people as everyone thinks of the next targeted area of the boko haram. Social Amenities: social amenities like schools, houses, hospital, markets; electricity etc. has been greatly affected by these activities. Family welfare services: these includes pre-marital counseling, single parent services, services for neglected and abused children and elderly human psycho-physical stability and development of individual and family unit. Environmental effects also have played its part. The environment has always formed a central part of the development focus. The conflict has led to environmental degradation, poverty and hindered rapid economic growth and development. (Nwanegbo 2004). The following are the consequences of the conflict on environment. 1.Pollution by war equipment (bomb) on the environment by gases, chemicalÃ and toxics radio-actives. 2.Scaring away of foreign and conservation experts 3.Refugee problems to neighboring countries and cities and its consequences effect on their own environment like our populations, destruction of their forests, over-cultivation and grazing of their lands, social and cultural breakdown, economic cost on the hoste towns and countries etc. Chad, Benin Republic and the cities closer to Maiduguri will testify better. 1.3OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY This particular study attempt to examine the relationship between terrorism and governance Ã¯Æ' ¼To identify factors responsible for the continuous strike of boko haram Ã¯Æ' ¼To investigate if good governance can actually be attained Ã¯Æ' ¼To investigate the main reason the emergence the terrorist sect Ã¯Æ' ¼To come up with scientific recommendations that could be off help to the policy makers to put an end to terrorism in Nigeria. 1.4.SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDIES A study of this nature will draw a link between terrorism and the attainment of good governance in Nigeria. The thesis will help clarify the hidden motive of terrorism and how terrorist art are been carried out. Furthermore, it will serve as a book of reference for any student who wants to attempt a similar research. Thus, generalizations reached in this research will serve as a guide to the general public and recommendations will be given in order to make necessary amendment towards attaining good governance Meanwhile, the international community will be more aware of the effect of Boko Haram in Nigeria. Finally, it can help other researchers and scholars in carrying out further research on the same or similar topics.